Fabiha Shakeel


Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a non-lymphomatous squamous-cell cancer that originates in the epithelial membrane of the nasopharynx. Certain environmental exposures, such as consuming salt-preserved fish, smoking, and insufficient consumption of raw fruits and vegetables, are commonly known cancer risk factors. Both high- and low-incidence areas patients with nasopharyngeal malignancy have repeatedly demonstrated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a risk factor. Nasopharyngeal tumors exhibit a significant frequency of metastasis, ranging from 5% to 41%, when compared to other H&N cancers both localized and distant metastasis. The most frequent locations for metastasis in this form of cancer are nodes, bones, lungs, and liver. Because they are radiosensitive, nasopharyngeal tumors are rarely amenable to surgery. The combination of radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy has improved methods (such intensity-modulated radiotherapy) and boosted survival. The most recent modifications are covered in this review article.

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